Instructions for Authors
Enacted in October 1977
Most recently revised in October 2018
ABOUT THE JOURNAL
The Korean Journal of Legal
Medicine (Korean J Leg Med; KJLM) is the official journal of the Korean Society
for Legal Medicine (KSLM). KJLM aims to present up-to-date coverage of
researches and practices in forensic medicine and science. This journal is published quarterly, on
February 28th, May 31st, August 31st, and November 30th.
Manuscripts for submission
to KJLM should be prepared according to the following instructions. KJLM
follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical
Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication
(http://www.icmje.org/) if not otherwise described below.
Anyone who deals with
forensic medicine and science throughout the world can submit a manuscript if
the academic and ethical range of the manuscript is appropriate.
COPYRIGHT AND CREATIVE
A submitted manuscript, when
published, will become the property of KSLM. Copyrights of all published are
owned by KJLM. The journal also follows the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial
License (http://creativecom-mons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) as an open access
The journal adheres to the
ethical guidelines for research and publication described in Good Publication
Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals and Committee on Publication Ethics
Guidelines (COPE). Experiments conducted on human and subjects should be
performed according to the Declaration of Helsinki (adopted in 1964 and amended
in 2004) and approved by the Research Ethics Committee or the Institutional
Review Board (IRB) of the institution where the experiment was performed.
Written informed consent should be obtained from all subjects, when necessary.
In the case of an animal
study, it should be mentioned that the experimental processes such as breeding
and the use of laboratory animals were approved by the Research Ethics
Committee of the institution where the experiment was performed or that these
processes complied with the rules of the Research Ethics Committee of the institution
or National Institutes for Health (NIH) Guide for the Care and Use of
Laboratory Animals (1996, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR)
Committee on National Research Council). In the study which uses human, animal
and cells, sex or gender should be reported.
If the study is applicable, analysis and discussion about sex or gender
should be conducted.
Conflict of Interest
The corresponding author
must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could
influence the authors’ interpretation of the data. Examples of potential
conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to
pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, and
academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable
to the study should be explicitly stated.
Authorship credit should be
based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of
data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising
it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the
version to be published; and 4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of
the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any
part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Authors should
meet conditions 1-4. When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work,
the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for
the manuscript. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the
corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and
identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally
list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments. Acquisition of funding,
collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not
Redundant Publication and
Redundant publication is
defined as “reporting (publishing or attempting to publish) substantially the
same work more than once, without attribution of the original source(s)”.
Characteristics of reports that are substantially similar include the following:
1) “at least one of the authors must be common to all reports (if there are no
common authors, it is more likely plagiarism than redundant publication),” 2)
“the subject or study populations are often the same or similar,” 3) “the
methodology is typically identical or nearly so,” and 4) “the results and their
interpretation generally vary little, if at all.” When submitting a manuscript,
authors should include a letter informing the editor of any potential overlap
with other already published material or material being evaluated for
publication and should also state how the manuscript submitted to KJLM differs
substantially from this other material. If all or part of your patient
population was previously reported, this should be mentioned in the Materials
and Methods, with citation of the appropriate reference(s).
It is possible to republish
manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the condition of secondary publication
of the “Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of
Scholarly Work in Medical Journals”.
Process for managing
Research and Publication Misconduct
When the journal faces
suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as redundant
(duplicate) publication, plagiarism, or fabricated data, changes in authorship,
an undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problems with a submitted
manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author’s idea or data,
complaints against editors, and so on, the resolution process will follow the
flowchart provided COPE. The discussion and decision on the suspected cases are
carried out by the Editorial Board.
Editorial board will
continuously work for monitoring/safeguarding publication ethics: guidelines
for retracting articles; maintenance of the integrity of the academic record;
preclusion of business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical
standard; publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies
when needed; no plagiarism, no fraudulent data. Editorial board check
manuscripts to confirm the originality of text through Similarity Check. If the
value of similarity index is unexpectedly high, it will be screened more
precisely on plagiarism or duplicate publication. Editors are always keeping
following responsibilities: responsibility and authority to rejection/accept;
acceptance of a paper when reasonably certain; promoting publication of
correction or retraction when errors are found; preservation of anonymity of
All manuscripts should be
submitted online via the journal’s website (http://submit.kjlm.or.kr) by the
corresponding author. Please log in first as a member of the system and follow
the directions. Submission instructions are available at the website. All
articles submitted to the journal must comply with these instructions. Failure
to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in
publication. Before submission, check list at the website should be checked by
authors. All authors must sign and submit the journal’s “Copyright Transfer”
form and the corresponding author must sign and submit the journal’s “Conflict
of Interest” to the journal’s website on submission. Send all correspondence
regarding submitted manuscripts to:
Kim, Youn Shin, M.D.
Mail address: Department of Forensic Pathology, Chosun University
School of Medicine, 309, Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452, Korea
CATEGORIES OF PUBLICATIONS
KJLM publishes original
articles, review articles, case reports, brief case reports, forensic figures,
and letter to the editors.
1. Original articles are papers reporting the results of original
experiment or study in all fields of the forensic medicine and science.
2. Review articles are a concise review of a subject of importance
to researchers of the forensic medicine and science written by an invited
expert in the forensic medicine and science.
3. Case reports deal with original content of forensic medicine and
4. Brief case reports are concise report about forensic medicine and
5. Forensic figures deal with core and fundamental figures or
paintings about forensic medicine and science.
6. Letter to the editors are limited to the manuscript of recent
trends in the forensic medicine and science, statistical data, short articles
for case reports, readers’ comment and authors’ opinion for the published
articles within a year.
EDITORIAL AND PEER REVIEW
KJLM reviews all manuscripts
received. A manuscript is first reviewed for its format and then sent to two
most relevant reviewers who are selected by recommendation of the Editorial
Board members or from the Board’s specialist database. Authors’ name and
affiliation are removed during peer reviews.
Acceptance of the manuscript
is decided based on the critiques and recommended decision of the reviewers. A
reviewer may recommend “acceptance without revision,” “acceptance after minor
revisions,” “review again after revisions,” or “rejection.” If there is a
marked discrepancy in the decisions between two reviewers or between the
opinions of the author and reviewer(s), the editor may send the manuscript to
another reviewer for additional comments and a recommended decision. Three
times of “review again after revision” are regarded as a “rejection.” The
reviewed manuscripts are returned back to the corresponding author with
comments and recommended revisions. Names and decisions of the reviewers are masked.
A final decision on acceptance or rejection for publication is forwarded to the
corresponding author from the Editorial Office.
The usual reasons for
rejection are topics that are too specific and target an audience that is too
limited, insufficient originality, serious scientific flaws, poor quality of
illustrations, or absence of a message that might be important to readers. The
peer review process takes usually 4 weeks after the manuscript submission.
Revisions should be made
reflecting comments made by reviewers. The revised manuscript should be
resubmitted via the web system. Failure to resubmit the revised manuscript
within 1 month without any notice from the corresponding author is regarded as
a “withdrawal.” The corresponding author must indicate clearly what alterations
have been made in response to the reviewer’s comments point by point.
Acceptable reasons should be given for noncompliance with any recommendation of
The Editor assumes that all
authors listed in a manuscript have agreed with the following policy of KJLM on
submission of manuscripts. Except for the negotiated secondary publication,
manuscripts submitted to the Journal must be previously unpublished and not be
under consideration for publication elsewhere. Under any circumstances, the
identities of the reviewers will not be revealed.
If a new author should be
added or an author should be deleted after the submission, it is the
responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that the authors concerned
are aware of and agree to the change in authorship. KJLM has no responsibility
for such changes.
Minimum page charges and
additional fees for reprints can be due for every manuscript. Costs for
printing color illustrations can be charged to the authors. All published
manuscripts become the permanent property of the KSLM and may not be published
elsewhere without written permission.
MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION AND
All manuscripts must adhere
to the following instructions.
1. The main document with the manuscript text and tables should be
prepared with in an MS Word or Hangul Word format in English (Korean manuscript
text is temporarily available until new notice). Abstract, tables, figures and
references should be written in English. The medical terms are followed in
accordance with the glossary the most recently published by Korean Medical
2. The manuscript should be written in 10-point font with double
line spacing on A4 sized (21.0 × 29.7 cm) paper with 2.5 cm margins on the top,
bottom, right, and left. Shinmyungjo style for Korean and Times New Romans for
English are recommended. Page number must start from the abstract page at the
bottom, middle section of the page. Author’s names and institutions must appear
only on the title page but not in any other sections.
3. The use of acronyms and abbreviations is discouraged and should
be kept to a minimum. When used, they are to be defined where first used,
followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses.
4. Drug and chemical names should be stated in standard chemical or
5. Units of measure should be presented according to the
International System (SI) of Units. All units must be preceded by one space
except percentage (%), angle (°) and temperature (℃).
6. Descriptions of genes or related structures in a manuscript
should include the names and official symbols provided by the US National
Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or the HUGO Gene Nomenclature
7. Statistical expression: mean and standard deviation should be
described as mean±SD, and mean and standard error as mean±SE. P-values should
be described as P<0.05 or P=0.003.
8. Generic and brand name of medicine: for medicine, use generic
names. If a brand name should be used, insert it in parentheses after the
Reporting Guidelines for
Specific Study Designs
For the specific study
design, such as randomized control studies, studies of diagnostic accuracy,
meta-analyses, observational studies, and non-randomized studies, it is
recommended that the authors comply with the following reporting guidelines:
● CONSORT Statement (reporting of randomized controlled trial)
● STARD (reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies)
● STROBE (reporting of observational studies in epidemiology)
● PRISMA (reporting of systematic reviews):
● MOOSE (reporting of meta-analyses of observational studies)
Manuscripts will not be
acceptable for publication unless they meet the following editorial
requirements. Manuscripts must include 1) Title page, 2) Abstract and Key
words, 3) Main text (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion),
4) Conflict of interest, 5) Acknowledgements and Funding, 6) References, 7)
Tables, and 8) Figure legends. Each component should begin on a new page in the
1) Title page
A running title, manuscript
title, and each author’s full name and affiliation including the name of the
country, should be provided. The manuscript title, name of authors and
affiliation of all authors should be described both in English and in Korean.
The manuscript title should be concise and informative. Phrase or sentence
title is eligible. The title should be less than 30 words. Avoid abbreviations
and formulae where possible. The running title of less than 50 characters
should be in English, not be a declarative or interrogative sentence. The first
letter of a running title should be capitalized. For a multicenter study,
indicate each individual’s affiliation using a superscript Arabic number (1, 2,
3…). All persons designated as authors should be qualified for authorship. Each
author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public
responsibility for the content. A ‘corresponding author’ for reprints should be
indicated, and full contact information (including address, telephone number,
fax number, and e-mail) should be provided.
Provide of the Open Researchers
and Contributors ID (ORCID) of all authors is recommended, that can be
registered and obtained from:http://orcid.org/.
2) Abstract and Key Words
The abstract describe
concisely, in a paragraph the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the
study in an unstructured format. It should not exceed 250 words. Medical
Subject Headings (MeSH) authorized words should only be used for the key words,
and up to 5 key words should be listed just after the abstract. The first
letter of a keyword should be capitalized.
3) Main Text
Introduction: The purpose of the investigation, including relevant
background information, should be briefly described.
Materials and Methods: The research plan, the materials (or
subjects), and the methods used should be described, in that order. How the
disease was confirmed and how subjectivity in observations was controlled
should be explained in detail. When the experimental methodology is the main
issue of the paper, the process should be described in detail so as to
reproduce the experiment as closely as possible. The sources of the apparatus
or reagents used should be given along with the source location (name of
company, city, and country). If relevant, information on the IRB approval and
informed consent should be included. Methods of statistical analysis and
criteria for statistical significance should be described.
Results: The results should be presented in logical sequence in the
text, tables, and illustrations. The text should not repeat all the data in the
tables or figures, but describe important points and trends.
Discussion: Observations pertaining to the results of research and
other related materials should be interpreted for your readers. New and
important observations should be emphasized; the contents in the Introduction
or Results should not be simply repeated. The meaning of the observed opinion,
along with its limits, should be explained, and within the limits of the
research results, the conclusion should be connected to the purpose of the
4) Conflicts of Interest
Conflicts of interest should
be written in English. The corresponding author of an article is asked to
inform the editors of the authors’ potential conflicts of interest possibly
influencing their interpretation of data. A potential conflict of interest should
be disclosed in the manuscript even when the authors are confident that their
judgments have not been influenced in preparing the manuscript.
5) Acknowledgements and Funding
Acknowledgements and funding
should all be written in English. Acknowledgements: the contributors who helped
administrative work, assisted in the research process or participated in
proof-reading etc. can be described. Funding: the financial support and its
contents should be described. When there is a funding agency, the FundRef ID of
that agency is recommended to be added of which information is available from:
References should be
obviously related to the content of the submitted paper. References should be
numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the
text. Each reference should be cited as , [1,4], or [1-3], at the end of the
related sentence in the text. The abbreviated journal title should be used
according to the List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals) and the List of KoreaMed
Journals (http://www.koreamed.org/JournalBrowser.php). If there are three or
fewer authors in a reference, then all the names of the authors should be
listed. If the number of authors is greater than three, list the initial three
authors, and then abbreviate the rest of the authors with ‘et al.’
Unpublished observations and
personal communication should not be used as references, although references to
written, not oral communication may be inserted (in parentheses) in the text.
Abstracts published in a citable journal may be cited. To cite a paper accepted
but not yet published, state “in press” in the end of the reference or the
paper’s DOI number if electronic publication. References must be verified by
the author(s) against the original documents. Other types of references not
described below should follow Citing Medicine: The NLM style Guide for Authors,
Editors, and Publishers, 2nd ed. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7256/).
If there is no English
description from textbooks or papers in Korean, it should be written by
author’s translation or Romanization of the Korean characters provided by the
National Institute of Korean Language available at http://www.korean.go.kr/.
Sample references are given below:
1. Yoo SH, Lee SD. Experimental estimation of Widmark factor in a
Korean male population. Korean J Leg Med 2006;30:14-24.
2. Lee HY, Park MJ, Chung U, et al. Haplotypes and mutation analysis
of 22 Y-chromosomal STRs in Korean father-son pairs. Int J Legal Med
3. Wai KT, Gunn P, Barach M. Development of the MitoQ assay as a
real-time quantification of mitochondrial DNA in degraded samples. Int J Leg
Med 2018 Oct 24 [Epub]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-018-1956-8.
4. Spitz WU. Medicolegal investigation of death. 4th ed.
Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher; 2004. p. 255-75.
5. Costa M, Jery S. History of diarrhea. In: Smith JR, ed. Medical
history and perspective. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1987. p. 1-40.
6. Korean National Statistical Office. 2010 Cause of Death
[Internet]. Daejeon: Korean National Statistical Office; 2011 [cited 2014 Dec
1]. Available from: http://kostat.go.kr.
Tables should be typed
double-spaced on separate pages within manuscript, and they should be titled
and numbered in Arabic numerals in the order of their first citation in the
text. Each column should be given a short heading. Only the first letter of the
first word in each row and column should be capital letters. If numerical
measurements are given, the unit of measurement should be included in the
column heading. The statistical significance of observed differences in the
data should be indicated by the appropriate statistical analysis. All
nonstandard abbreviations should be defined in footnotes. Table footnotes
should be indicated in sequence of lower case of English with superscript.
Each figure should be
submitted in a separate file at a resolution of more than 300 dpi in TIFF (or
JPG), EPS (or PDF), or MS office files for photos. Detailed explanations belong
in the figure legends, not on the illustrations themselves. Figure legends
should be described in English. Figure legends should not be included in the
same file as the figure, but placed instead on a page at the end of the
manuscript. The figures should be numbered in the form Fig. 1, Fig. 2, and Fig.
3. Only the first letter of the first word in the title and data should be
capital letters. Related figures should be combined into one figure, with each
subfigure denoted by the letters, A, B, C, and so on, following the Arabic
number of the main figure (ex: Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B, C). Do not label in the corner
using capital letters on each figure. The illustrations of pathological tissue
should state clearly the type of stain (ex: H&E, × 400), and the main
contents should be marked by signs or arrows on the picture. The Editorial
Committee may request that hand-drawn illustrations be redrawn by a graphic
Review articles are usually
solicited by the Editosr-in-Chief. However, unsolicited reviews will be also
considered. If submitted manuscript is not solicited, Editor-in-Chief decides
whether publication of that manuscript considering the scope of journal. Review
articles are prepared in the following sequence: title page, abstract and key
words, main text (introduction, text, conclusion), conflict of interest,
acknowledgments and funding, references, table, and figure legends. But the
details of the manuscript format may be flexible according to the contents.
Manuscripts are limited to 5,000 words of text and include a 250-word summary
in the place of the unstructured abstract. References should not exceed 100.
The manuscript should be in
the following sequence: title page, abstract and key words, introduction, case
report (description), discussion, acknowledgments and funding, references, table,
and figure legends. Maximums: one-paragraph unstructured abstract, 200 words;
word count from Introduction through Discussion, 2,000 words; number of
references, 25; number of figure parts, 6.
BRIEF CASE REPORTS
The manuscript should be in
the following sequence: title page, abstract and key words, case report
(description) and discussion, acknowledgments and funding, references, table,
and figure legends. Maximums: one-paragraph unstructured abstract, 200 words;
word count from Introduction through Discussion, 1,500 words; number of
references, 10; number of figure parts, 3.
Forensic figures deal with a
manuscript including a small number of figures that can explain a core content
in the forensic medicine and science fields. The manuscript should be in the
following sequence: title page, figures and legends, discussion,
acknowledgments and funding, references, Maximums: word count from figure
legends through Discussion, 1,000 words; number of references, 10; number of
figure parts, 5.
LETTER TO THE EDITORS
This section of the journal
is set aside for critical comments directed to a specific article that has
recently been published in the journal. Letters should be brief (800 words),
double-spaced, and limited to a maximum of 5 citations and 5 figures. Illustrative
material can be accepted only with the permission of the editor. The editor
reserves the right to shorten letters, delete objectionable comments, and make
other changes to comply with the style of the journal.